Courtois Cristiano Ronaldo is irreplaceable

first_imgReal Madrid goalkeeper Thibaut Courtois admits Cristiano Ronaldo simply cannot be replaced, but challenged his teammates anyway to help compensate for the loss of his goalsThe Portuguese superstar call time on his glorious nine-year spell with Real in favour of a €112m summer move to Juventus and has since excelled over in Italy.But, while Ronaldo impresses in the Serie A, Real have struggled in his absence by having their worst start to a new campaign in 17 years.However, under new manager Santiago Solari, things have improved for Los Blancos with seven wins in the Argentine’s nine matches in charge.And Solari won his first piece of silverware at the club on Saturday in their 4-1 win over Al Ain in the Club World Cup final.Franck Ribery, FiorentinaFiorentina owner: “Ribery played better than Ronaldo!” Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Fiorentina owner Rocco Commisso was left gushing over Franck Ribery’s performance against Juventus, which he rates above that of even Cristiano Ronaldo’s.Despite that though, Courtois believes Real still have to step up and find a way to compensate for the loss of Ronaldo’s goals.“Cristiano Ronaldo is irreplaceable, you cannot forget what he did,” said Courtois, according to Yahoo.“But he is not here anymore, so it’s time for other players, like Bale did in the semi-finals [of the Club World Cup], to score the goals he [Ronaldo] used to score.“If we are able to do so, it’ll be fine.”Currently, Karim Benzema (11) and Gareth Bale (10) are Real’s leading scorers this season.last_img read more

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LA Declares Nov 10 Morrissey Day Ahead Of Hollywood Bowl Shows

first_img https://twitter.com/slicingeyeballs/status/900134736776937472 Email News Facebook This past September, a bar in L.A.’s predominantly Latino Boyle Heights community also hosted an all-Morrissey karaoke night commemorating the release of the singer’s new album, Low In High School.Given all this hubbub over Morrissey’s Hollywood Bowl appearances, fans will surely be keeping their fingers crossed that the heating system at the venue is in better shape than the one in Paso Robles, Calif., where Morrissey just last weekend cancelled his appearance moments before he was scheduled to take the stage, citing “cold weather” (yes, in California).Here’s hoping this weekend’s projected weather forecast (high 60s) is warm enough.Songwriting Prompts: Help Yourself Write Better And FasterRead more Twitter center_img Hollywood Bowl exit on Los Angeles’ 101 freeway hit with guerrilla Morrissey promotion https://t.co/3aL2ivmDc2 (h/t @derekpaulscott) pic.twitter.com/Zcr1dzWe2N— Slicing Up Eyeballs (@slicingeyeballs) August 22, 2017 City to honor “the man who put the ‘M’ in Moz Angeles”Brian HaackGRAMMYs Nov 9, 2017 – 12:46 pm Apparently, some of the folks involved in Los Angeles municipal government are big-time Morrissey fans.The brooding, at times cantankerous, alt-pop singer/songwriter has a pair of highly anticipated sold-out shows scheduled for Nov. 10–11 with special guest Billy Idol at L.A.’s historic Hollywood Bowl.In honor of the former Smiths frontman’s upcoming shows, L.A.’s City Council has declared Nov. 10 “Morrissey Day” in the City of Angels.City councilwoman Monica Rodriguez commented, “Morrissey Day honors the man who put the ‘M’ in Moz Angeles [sic], an icon whose music continues to touch and uplift countless people across the globe.”L.A. Mayor Eric Garcetti joined Rodriguez in praising the announcement, saying, “Morrissey Day celebrates an artist whose music has captivated and inspired generations of people who may not always fit in — because they were born to stand out.”The mayor and city council aren’t the only one getting wrapped up in Moz mania — the day after Morrissey’s Hollywood Bowl dates were announced this past summer someone snuck out onto an overpass above U.S. Highway 101 and slapped a giant Morrisey sign reading above the exit ramp for the Bowl. Moz Mania Grips Los Angeles This Weekend la-declares-nov-10-morrissey-day-ahead-hollywood-bowl-shows L.A. Declares Nov. 10 “Morrissey Day” Ahead Of Hollywood Bowl Shows last_img read more

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Google adds handy playable podcasts to search results

first_img Apple Post a comment Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 Google is making it easier to search for podcasts. Joan Cros/NurPhoto via Getty Images Google’s rolling out the ability to play podcasts from our search results just days after announcing it during the I/O developer conference.Searching for a podcast brings up the latest trio of episodes and lets you play them instantly from the Google Podcasts web player on desktop or mobile. It uses the same mechanics as the Android app that came out last year, and syncs across multiple devices if you’re signed in to your Google account. The app isn’t out on iOS, but you can still use the features on an Apple device’s web browser, as highlighted by 9to5Google.The functionality works across both desktop and mobile. It’s especially useful on iOS where a dedicated Google Podcasts app is yet to be released, as 9to5Google notes. Aug 31 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors Tags reading • Google adds handy playable podcasts to search results Share your voice Now playing: Watch this: Zack Reneau-Wedeen, Google Podcasts’ head of product, tweeted a demonstration of the new functionality on Thursday.In March, the BBC removed its podcasts from Google’s app after concluding that the search giant’s policy of directing people looking for BBC podcasts to its own app “reduces people’s choice.”First published at 5:19 a.m. PT.Updated at 5:50 a.m. PT: Adds more detail. 1:50center_img Aug 31 • Your phone screen is gross. Here’s how to clean it Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? 5 tips for the new Google Podcasts app 0 Google Apple Rolling out this week you’ll be able to search for and play podcasts directly in Google Search across Android, iOS, and desktop browsers, a step toward making audio a first-class citizen across Google. pic.twitter.com/29ohC7W9z8— Zack Reneau-Wedeen (@ZackRW) May 9, 2019 Internet Services See All •last_img read more

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A headon collision with a planetary embryo may have changed Jupiter forever

first_imgThat’s gonna sting. Astrobiology Center, Japan NASA’s Juno spacecraft has given us unreal views of the gas giant Jupiter. But Juno isn’t just a member of the interplanetary paparazzi, it’s a fully capable cosmic lab with instruments designed to probe the mammoth planet. After taking precise measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field, the spacecraft has discovered that the planet’s core isn’t as dense as expected.Now, scientists have proposed an almost-apocalyptic reason for this: A “planetary embryo” with 10 times more mass than Earth (and almost as much mass as Uranus) could have slammed into the largest planet in the solar system and disturbed its core. It’s not the object that whacked Jupiter last week and was captured by an amateur astronomer on Earth. This event would have taken place in the distant past, and we’re only just learning how it may have shaped Jupiter.The research, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, details a number of simulations demonstrating how a planetary embryo could have led to the uneven distribution of heavy metals we see throughout Jupiter’s gaseous envelope today. Jupiter is mostly composed of hydrogen and helium gases that move around a dense core. Scientists believed that heavy metals should be confined close to a dense core, but the Juno mission revealed that the metals are actually strewn further from the core, making it more dilute.”Jupiter’s interior models based on Juno’s data suggest Jupiter has a fuzzy core that extends to almost half of its radius, which no one has ever imagined,” says Shangfei Liu, lead author on the study and astronomer at Sun Yat-sen University in China.How could that occur? The research team’s simulations suggest the young Jupiter suffered a giant impact during its formative years, which gave rise to this weird, unexpected distribution. Originally published Aug. 14, 10:15 a.m. PT.Update, Aug. 15 at 3:57 p.m.: Adds comments from Shangfei Liu. Now playing: Watch this: 2:58 20 Photos Space geeks tweak NASA images of Jupiter’s red spot Share your voice Tags Though the collision sounds violent, it’s almost as if the young Jupiter swallowed up the planetary embryo. “A planetary embryo is a still-forming protoplanet, mostly made of rock and ice from the solar nebula,” explains Liu. The simulations show that the core of the protoplanet would have had to collide with Jupiter’s core to throw up the heavy elements and mix them throughout the entire envelope. The models show that the impact would have resulted in the internal structure discovered by NASA’s Juno and in the heavy element distribution.Other simulations demonstrate that if the smaller planet only skipped across Jupiter, the collision wouldn’t have the power to redistribute heavy metals throughout the gaseous envelope (though it would still be bad news for the baby planet).high-res-imageSlightly bruised and broken; from our head on collision. Astrobiology Center, Japan These models also offer an explanation for some of the phenomena seen in a number of easily-discoverable exoplanets, the planets that lie outside our solar system. A number of these planets, known as “hot Jupiters,” are super dense, stacked with heavy elements and orbit very close to their star. They’re also prone to giant impacts. The researchers suggest their model might explain why there are so many heavy metals in these hot Jupiters, since they get smashed by planetary embryos as they form.Could a series of small events, rather than one huge impact, give rise to the Jupiter we see today? The researchers say this needs more investigation.The work provides further evidence of the tumultuous environment of the early solar system. Previous research suggests that massive impacts shaped our moon and Earth itself. The new research even suggests Saturn may have experienced a similar impact event during its formation and another NASA probe, Cassini, famously plunged into the planet’s interior in 2017.”There are studies using Cassini’s data (especially during its grand finale) to model Saturn’s interior,” says Liu. “But Juno was designed to measure Jupiter’s gravity field, so the data is much better and models are more reliable. But Saturn’s interior is definitely worth to look at in the future.”As for Juno? The Jovian explorer has been orbiting Jupiter since 2016 and recently had its mission extended to 2022, so we can expect more revelations ahead. 2 NASA video gives a Juno’s-eye view of the approach to… Sci-Tech Commentslast_img read more

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Amu tells CJ this is Bangladesh not Pakistan

first_imgIn an oblique reference to chief justice’s remarks, industries minister Amir Hossain Amu on Sunday said Bangladesh did not emerge from any communal poison like Pakistan but through the sacrifices of three million people. “Such utterances are meaningless… this is not Pakistan…this is Bangladesh,” he said apparently venting angers at the chief justice’s remarks.Chief justice Surendra Kumar Sinha, as media reported on Sunday, said the judiciary is having enough patience. Amu said, “We’ve heard our chief justice asked to look at Pakistan. We had looked at Pakistan many days ago, not today.”Recently, Pakistan’s Supreme Court ousted its prime minister Nawaz Sharif over corruption claims.The Awami League leader said the judges came to the court set up for hanging Bangabandhu in the Agartala “conspiracy” case but the people of Bangladesh and Pakistan do not know how and when they (judges) fled. “We’ve had that experience. If such things need to be seen again here, then the people of the country are ready (to face it).”The industries minister said conspiracies are being hatched against Bangladesh to make it a failed state. “We’re seeing conspiracies from various fronts. Some are trying to catch fish in troubled waters. A vested group is conspiring to hamper the country’s security and halt its pace of development,” he said.Amu said Pakistan is now a failed sate and they cannot tolerate today’s progress of Bangladesh. “That’s why they’re conspiring to make Bangladesh a failed state.”The minister came up with the remarks at a discussion organised by the Ministry of Industries marking the 15 August.About Bangabandhu, he said the killers did not only kill the person Bangabandhu on the black day of 15 August but also tried to kill the spirit of the independence.last_img read more

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20pc workers can form trade union draft law says

first_imgPrime minister Sheikh Hasina chairs cabinet meeting at Bangladesh secretariat on 3 September 2018. Photo: PIDThe cabinet on Monday approved in principle the draft of Bangladesh Labour Act (Amendment) Bill, 2018 with more facilities for workers, reports UNB.The draft law also reduces the workers’ threshold to 20 per cent from the existing 30 per cent for forming trade unions.The approval was given at the weekly meeting of the Cabinet held at the secretariat with prime minister Sheikh Hasina in the chair.Under the proposed law, the percentage of workers’ participation required for forming trade unions at factories will be reduced to 20 per cent from the existing 30 per cent, said cabinet secretary Md Shafiul Alam.The draft bill has been prepared and updated following the observation of the International Labour Organisation (ILO).”The amended law will be a labour-friendly one,” said the cabinet secretary.”Under the proposed law, no child will be allowed to work in factories. If anybody employs child workers then he or she will have to pay a fine of Tk 5,000,” he added.In the draft bill, the punishment of workers for violating laws has been reduced by 50 per cent while new facilities included for them.Under the draft law, the inspection for factories and establishment department has been upgraded to the level of directorate.The post of the chief inspector of the department is now inspector general, while deputy director general is additional inspector general, and the post of labour director has been upgraded to the rank of director general, Shafiul Alam said.Under the proposed law, he said, mentally and physically-challenged labourers cannot be employed in any risky works.According to section 47 of the draft, if any female worker gives birth to a baby before informing the authorities, she will get an 8-week leave within 3 days after informing the authorities. If the factory authorities do not allow her to go on leave, they will be fined Tk 25,000.Besides, if any worker does his or her duty during festival, he or she will get a two-day leave and wage for two days after the festival.Both owners and workers will be sentenced to one year jail with a fine of Tk 10,000 for misconduct, which was two years in the previous law.Section-195 of the draft law will be applicable for factory owners and section-196 for labourers and workers.In the draft law, the punishment for enforcing strike illegally has been reduced to six months from one year.In case of natural death, the family of the worker concerned will get Tk 200,000 as compensation, which was Tk100,000 in the previous law, and in the case of injury, they will get Tk 250,000, which is now Tk 125,000.last_img read more

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ShabeBarat 21 April

first_img.Holy Shab-e-Barat, the night of fortune and forgiveness, will be observed in the country on 21 April as the Shaban moon was not sighted in Bangladesh sky on Saturday, reports UNB.The decision was taken at a meeting of the National Moon Sighting Committee held at the Islamic Foundation’s Baitul Mukarram office in the evening with state minister for religious affairs Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah in the chair.Shab-e-Barat is observed on the fifteenth night of Shaban month.According to Muslim belief, Shab-e-Barat is the night when Allah arranges the affairs of the following year. On Shab-e-Barat, Allah writes the destinies of all the creations for the coming year by taking into account their past deeds.Muslim devotees will offer special prayers, recite from the Holy Quran, hold milad, zikr and other religious rituals seeking divine blessings for the wellbeing of mankind.last_img read more

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ANALYSIS The Biggest Threat To Texas Republicans Texas Republicans

first_img Share It might not work in mailers from Republican senators like Cruz, but Abbott’s works — and those of the state’s lieutenant governor — are pretty good evidence that some of the folks at the Texas GOP’s family reunion would like to throw out some of their political kin.Susanna Dokupil, an assistant solicitor general when Abbott was the state’s attorney general, will have the governor’s support — for what that’s worth — against Davis in the Republican primaries. What that is worth depends on the governor himself. Two Republican incumbents — Doug Miller of New Braunfels and Wayne Smith of Bay City — lost their runoffs in 2016 in spite of Abbott’s endorsements. His name alone was not enough to save them. But the governor, who has a huge campaign account and no formidable opposition in his own bid for reelection, could bring heavy artillery to back up his choices in legislative races.There’s a tie here to one of Abbott’s perennial “emergency issues” for the Legislature: His call for ethics reform. He seems more interested in it for other officeholders than himself. The governor’s office bristled — governors have minions to do that for them — earlier this year when the House overwhelmingly supported a bill that would have barred big donors to governors from gubernatorial appointments to state boards and commissions. Some lawmakers believe that’s a little too blatant a case of quid pro quo. For this governor and his predecessors, fancy seats for big givers is simply the way things are done.Davis wasn’t the author of that gem — state Rep. Lyle Larson was. He might be on Abbott’s hit list before this is over. But Davis was part of the club, and one of the noisiest critics when Abbott didn’t put ethics reform, an issue he declared an “emergency” earlier this year and two years ago in his first session as governor, on the list of 20 things he wanted done during the summer’s special session.If the governor is successful, Davis won’t be one of the thorns in his paw for much longer. It would tell the surviving members of the Legislature that crossing the governor has real costs. It would tell members of the more conservative Senate that the governor is on their side of the bubbling Senate v. House turbulence that colored this year’s legislative debates.It also puts the governor’s thumb into the race for speaker of the House. Joe Straus, the current speaker, is leaving. The people elected to the House in 2018 — a group that will include Davis or Dokupil or a Democrat who beats the Republican nominee — will select the next speaker. Abbott evidently wants more people in that chamber that vote like the state’s conservative senators, and picking off the least-conservative members of the House is a way to move things in that direction. Abbott isn’t the Texas GOP’s only cannibal. Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick’s campaign consigliere, Allan Blakemore, has signed on to run a challenge to state Sen. Kel Seliger, an Amarillo Republican who doesn’t always toe the movement conservative line favored by Patrick.The two leaders are trying some political behavior modification on their own party. They can’t kill many more Democrats, but the Republican-drawn House and Senate political maps have minimized the danger from the minority party. They’re trying to straighten their own ranks, to remove obstacles within their own party that have successfully blocked or slowed their agendas.And they’re betting Republican primary voters are with them. Davis answered Abbott’s endorsement of her challenger with a cautionary note, noting Hillary Clinton’s 15-point advantage over Donald Trump in her district and pointing to that as evidence that a moderate Republican is what her voters want. Electing a more conservative Republican in the March primary, she said, risks a Democrat winning the seat in November.They can’t all be right. Marjorie Kamys CoteraRep. Sarah Davis R-West University Place, speaks to media regarding her request to add ethics reform to the special session on Aug. 2, 2017The Republican big tent shares a risk with big family reunions; everybody shows up, and the name is sometimes the only thing they have in common.In the latest installment of the GOP’s family feud, Gov. Greg Abbott, a Republican whose own state representative is a Democrat, came out against a Republican Houston incumbent this week by backing the GOP challenger to state Rep. Sarah Davis in the lead-up to next year’s March 6 primary.This is a big deal. Texas governors generally don’t endorse against incumbents, never mind endorsing against incumbents in their own party. Sure, this is politics and politics ain’t beanbag and all that. But this puts a sort of official stamp on a split in the GOP that so many Republicans won’t even acknowledge.In a recent email to supporters, U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz nodded to that, saying, “The media continues to pit Republicans against each other in squabble after squabble …” But here’s Abbott putting a squabble on his list of things to do in the next four months. He’s not done, either: Aides told The Texas Tribune’s Patrick Svitek that he’s likely to add more Republican incumbents to the list.last_img read more

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Automated meter reading systems make life easy for intruders

first_img Citation: Automated meter reading systems make life easy for intruders (2012, October 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-automated-meter-life-easy-intruders.html An aerial view of the neighborhood where the researchers performed their eavesdropping experiments. Each blue triangle or red star represents a group of four or five meters mounted in a cluster on an exterior wall. Using an LNA and a 5 dBi omnidirectional antenna, they were able to monitor all meters in the neighborhood. Some sniffed meters may be out of the scope of this view. Credit: Ishtiaq Rouf et al. More information: Research paper: www.winlab.rutgers.edu/~grutes … ers/fp023-roufPS.pdfvia Newscientist Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Intruders of the break-in and snooping variety have their work cut out for them by just picking up wireless signals that are broadcast by utility meters, say researchers from the University of South Carolina at Columbia, IEEE and Rutgers. As with many other technological advances that bring new pathways for criminals, advances in meters have created concerns about intrusions. Millions of analogue meters to measure water, gas and electricity consumption have been replaced by automated meter reading (AMR) in the U.S. The newer method enables devices to broadcast readings by radio every 30 seconds for utility company employees to read as they walk or drive around with a receiver. Intruders can tune into the same information, however, according to Ishtiaq Rouf and his colleagues, authors of a paper that delivers a security analysis of AMR systems. More than 40 million meters in the United States have been equipped with AMR technology over the past years. The smart meters collect energy consumption data which could reveal sensitive personal information from homes, they said. Because energy usage often drops to near zero when a house is empty, the readings could be used to identify which owners are at work or traveling. Their work shows that currently deployed AMR systems are vulnerable to spoofing attacks and privacy breaches. The research was presented earlier this week at the 19th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, which ran from October 16 to 18 in Raleigh, North Carolina. The AMR meters that they studied make data publicly available over unsecured wireless transmissions. “They use a basic frequency hopping wireless communication protocol and show no evidence of attempting to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the data,” added the research team.They picked up transmissions from AMR meters operated by companies. They said that the communication protocol can be reverse-engineered with only a few days of effort. They made use of radio equipment and information available through online tutorials. They used software radio equipment publicly available for about $1,000 (GNU Radio with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral). “We were able to both eavesdrop on messages as well as spoof messages to falsify the reading captured by a commonly used ‘walk-by’ reader,” they said. Through wireless monitoring, they harvested consumption data from 485 meters within a 300m radius region.As remedies, the authors suggested alternative schemes based on defensive jamming, which they said may be easier to deploy than upgrading meters themselves. Jamming could protect against the leakage of legacy devices and requires no modification of the deployed meters. © 2012 Phys.org Google’s PowerMeter Will Help Reduce Energy Consumption (Video)last_img read more

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Nanoscale magnetic imaging of ferritin in a single cell

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the present work, Wang et al. reported two technical advancements to allow nanoscale MI of intracellular proteins within a single cell. For this, they freeze-fixed the cell to a solid state and intricately segmented it to a cube shape, then placed it on a tuning fork scanning probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) for imaging, where the flat cross section of the cell was exposed to air. The scientists used the sample placement setup to allow the NV sensor to be positioned within 10 nm of the target proteins and used the AFM to suppress thermal drift during sample positioning. They then engineered trapezoidal cylinder-shaped nanopillars at a bulk diamond surface for image acquisition, technically shortening the time of image acquisition by one order compared to previous methods. In the present study, the scientists used this technique to conduct in situ MI of the magnetic fluctuating noise of intracellular ferritin proteins (a biomarker of iron stores and transferrin saturation in the body) within the experimental setup. In life sciences, the ability to measure the distribution of biomolecules inside a cell in situ is an important investigative goal. Among a variety of techniques, scientists have used magnetic imaging (MI) based on the nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamonds as a powerful tool in biomolecular research. However, nanoscale imaging of intracellular proteins has remained a challenge thus far. In a recent study now published in Science Advances, Pengfei Wang and colleagues at the interdisciplinary departments of physics, biomacromolecules, quantum information and life sciences in China, used ferritin proteins to demonstrate the MI realization of endogenous proteins in a single cell, using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center as the sensor. They imaged intracellular ferritins and ferritin-containing organelles using MI and correlative electron microscopy to pave the way for nanoscale magnetic imaging (MI) of intracellular proteins. The scientists measured fluorescence decay at a fixed free evolution time of 50 microseconds (τ = 50 μs) to reveal the degree of NV sensor spin polarization, which correlated with the amount of ferritin in the sensing volume. They observed the appearance of some clusters via both TEM and MI images, although some details were not observed in MI, the results confirmed that spin noise from intracellular ferritin contributed to depolarize the NV center. In order to obtain details of the ferritin clusters at higher resolution, the scientists minimized the pixel size to 8.3 nm and acquired MI of high resolution of the proteins as expected. In this way, Wang et al. explored the sensitivity of NV centers as an appropriate sensor for biological imaging applications at the level of the single molecule. They used the technique as a sensor in the experimental setup to obtain the first MI of a protein at a resolution of 10 nm in situ. The scientists aim to improve the stability and sensitivity of the technique to speed up the scanning process and image a larger area of interest in the cell and locate ferritin beyond the nucleus in association with additional organelles. New method discovered to view proteins inside human cells Explore further Ferritin is a globular protein complex with an outer diameter of 12 nm, containing a cavity spanning 8 nm in diameter that allows up to 4500 iron atoms to be stored within the protein. The magnetic noise of the ferric ions can be detected due to their effects on the T1 relaxation time of an NV center. In this work, Wang et al. confirmed the observation using fluorescence measurements of time-dependent decay of the population of NV centers (magnetic spin, mS = 0 state), in a diamond surface coated with ferritins. Additionally, the scientists detected the magnetic noise with label-free methods using the NV center via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work allowed the development of a correlated MI and TEM scheme to obtain and verify the first nanoscale MI of a protein in situ. The scientists used the hepatic carcinoma cell line (HepG2) for the experiments and studied iron metabolism by treating the cells with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), which significantly increased the amount of intracellular ferritin. They verified this using confocal microscopy (CFM), western blotting and TEM techniques at first. The results showed the primary localization of ferritins in the intracellular puncta around the nucleus, among the cytoplasm. The scientists used bulk electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to confirm the paramagnetic properties of ferritin in the FAC-treated HepG2 cells and mass spectroscopy to measure the interference due to other paramagnetic metal ions. Journal information: Science Advances © 2019 Science X Network Increasing existing spatial resolution of biomedical imaging is required to achieve ongoing demands in medical imaging, and therefore, among a variety of techniques, magnetic imaging is of broad interest at present. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to quantify the distribution of nuclear spins but conventional MRI can only reach a resolution of 1 µm in nuclear spin imaging where the resolution is limited by electrical detection sensitivity. Scientists have developed a series of techniques to break this resolution barrier, including a superconducting quantum interference device and magnetic resonance force microscopy. Nevertheless, these reports require a cryogenic environment and high vacuum for imaging, limiting the experimental implementation and its translation to clinical practice. A recently developed quantum sensing method based on the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond has radically pushed the boundary of MI techniques at the nanoscale to detect organic molecules and proteins in the lab. Scientists have combined quantum sensing with NV centers and scanning probe microscopy to demonstrate nanoscale MRI for single electron spin and small nuclear spin ensemble while using the NV center as a biocompatible magnetometer to noninvasively image ferromagnetic particles within cells at the subcellular scale (0.4 µm). For example, depolarization of the NV center can be used as a wideband magnetometer to detect and measure fluctuating noise from metal ions and nuclear spins. However, such imaging of single proteins via MI at the nanoscale has not been reported in the single cell thus far. Citation: Nanoscale magnetic imaging of ferritin in a single cell (2019, April 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-nanoscale-magnetic-imaging-ferritin-cell.html Correlative MI and TEM images. (A) Schematic view of sectioning for correlative MI and TEM imaging. The last section and the remaining cube were transferred for TEM imaging and MI scanning, respectively. The sectioning resulted in some split ferritin clusters that could be imaged under both microscopes. A transparent blue strip of ~10 nm indicates the imaging depth of the MI, while in the TEM, the imaging depth is ~100 nm. (B) Distribution of ferritins from the last ultrathin section under TEM. Inset: Magnified figure of the part in black dashed box. (C) MI result of the remaining cell cube. The pixel size is 43 nm. (D) The merged MI and TEM micrograph shows ferritins in a membrane-bound organelle. The red arrows in (B) to (D) indicate the same ferritin cluster. Scale bars, 5 μm (B) and 1 μm [B (inset), C, and D]. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038.center_img TOP – The preparation and characterization of ferritin-rich HepG2 cell samples. (A) Schematic view of the treatment to cultured cells. Following iron loading or no treatment, the HepG2 cells were examined for fluorescence images and EPR spectra, respectively. For the MI and TEM imaging, cell samples were treated through high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and sectioning. (B) Representative confocal microscopy (CFM) image of ferritin structures (green) in iron-loaded HepG2 cells. The ferritin proteins were immunostained by anti-ferritin light chain antibody. The nuclei are indicated by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in the blue channel. Inset displays magnified ferritin structures. The yellow dashed line outlines the contour of a cell. Scale bar, 20 μm. (C) EPR spectra of control and iron-loaded HepG2 cells at T = 300 K. BOTTOM – Adjusting the distance between the NV center and the cell section. (A) Interference fringes between the cell cube and the diamond surface. Scale bar, 20 μm. (B) The geometric relation and the gap R between cell samples and diamond-pillars for MI. The top surface diameter of the nanopillar is 400 nm. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038. The work will contribute to clinical diagnostics to determine biomarker-based iron storage and release in cells. This will include studies on the regulatory mechanisms of iron metabolism during the progression of hemochromatosis, anemia, liver cirrhosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Wang et al. propose to extend the approach in situ to other cellular components with paramagnetic signals, including magnetic molecules, metalloproteins and special spin-labelled proteins. The scientists envision that further studies will explore additional targets suitable for high-resolution MI and correlated TEM imaging techniques, with optical microscopy detection incorporated to the experimental setup to extend the work and determine protein nuclear spin MRI as well as perform three-dimensional cell tomography. More information: Mamin H.J. et al. February 2013, Science. Pengfei Wang et al. Nanoscale magnetic imaging of ferritins in a single cell, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038 Denis Vasyukov et al. A scanning superconducting quantum interference device with single electron spin sensitivity, Nature Nanotechnology (2013). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.169 D. Rugar et al. Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy, Nature (2004). DOI: 10.1038/nature02658H. J. Mamin et al. Nanoscale Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Spin Sensor, Science (2013). DOI: 10.1126/science.1231540 , Nature Nanotechnology Wang et al. then used ultrafast, high-pressure freezing to immobilize all intracellular components of the Fe-loaded cells. The process stabilized the intracellular structures and molecules by minimizing Brownian motion in cells, which typically contributes to random motion of proteins up to 100 nm in vivo. To image the samples, they embedded and polymerized the frozen cells in LR White medium, followed by gluing the embedded cell sample to the AFM tuning fork with a few cells at the tip. Using a diamond knife, the scientists then sectioned the tip surface to nanometer flatness to examine the cuboid cell section under AFM. They acquired MI images of ferritins by scanning the cell cube along the diamond nanopillars and simultaneously measured NV spin repolarization rate using the “leapfrog” scanning mode of the microscope as detailed previously. , Science , Nature Schematic of the setup and experimental principle. (A) Schematic view of the experimental setup. The cell embedded in resin is attached to a tuning fork and scans above the diamond nanopillar that contains a shallow NV center. A copper wire is used to deliver the microwave pulse to the NV center. A green laser (532 nm) from the confocal microscope (CFM) is used to address, initialize, and read out the NV center. (B) Left: Crystal lattice and energy level of the NV center. The NV center is a point defect that consists of a substitutional nitrogen atom and an adjacent vacancy in diamond. Right: Schematic view of a ferritin. The black arrows indicate the electron spins of Fe3+. (C) Experimental demonstration of the spin noise detection with and without ferritin in the form of polarization decay for the same NV center. The inset is the pulse sequence for detection and imaging of the ferritin. A 5-μs green laser is used to initialize the spin state to ms = 0, followed by a free evolution time τ to accumulate the magnetic noise, and finally the spin state is read out by detecting the fluorescence intensity. The pulse sequence is repeated about 105 times to acquire a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The relaxation time is fitted to be 0.1 and 3.3 ms by exponential decay for the case with and without ferritin, respectively, indicating a spin noise of 0.01 mT2. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038. LEFT – Experimental setup. The experiment was carried out on a homebuilt setup, which combined optically detected magnetic resonance microscopy (ODMR) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). DM: dichroic mirror. BP: bandpass filter working at 650–775 nm. APD: avalanche photodiode. CCD: charge coupled device. LED: light emitting diode of 470 nm. AL: achromatic lens. PH: pinhole at a size of 30 μm. BS: beam splitter. RIGHT – Images of the nanopillars on diamonds. (A) SEM imaging of the fabricated diamond nanopillars just after reactive ion etching (RIE). The top of the nanopillar is covered by the hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) to protect the NV center. (B) A single trapezoidal-cylinder shaped nanopillar to sense cell sections adhered at the AFM tip. Scale bars, 10 μm (A); 400 nm (B). Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038. (A) Ferritin cluster imaged by the NV sensor with 80 × 24 pixels and a pixel size of 8.3 nm. Scale bar, 100 nm. (B) Trace data of the scanning line in (A) directed by the red arrow. The platform indicates the ferritin cluster. The red curve fitted by a plateau function serves as a guide to the eye. (C) Magnified figure of the gold dashed box in (B). The sharp transition indicated by the red arrow around x = 283 nm shows the scanning from the blank area to the area with ferritins. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8038.last_img read more

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Bird embryos respond to adult warning calls inside their shells

first_imgA pair of researchers with Universidad de Vigo has found that yellow-legged gull embryos respond to parental warning calls by vibrating inside their shells. In their paper published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, Jose Noguera and Alberto Velando describe their study of the gulls in their lab and what they learned. © 2019 Science X Network Prior research has shown that embryonic birds, amphibians, reptiles, and even insects receive sensory information that helps them prepare for the harsh reality of the real world. In this new effort, Noguera and Velando have found evidence that yellow-legged gull embryos hear the warning cries of their parents and respond to them. They also found that hearing adult warning cries resulted in chicks with physical and behavioral changes, as well.The experiments by the researchers involved collecting 90 gull eggs from nests along the shores of Sálvora Island and bringing them back to their lab for testing. They separated the eggs into individual three-egg clutches and incubated them. The researchers then pulled two of the three eggs from each incubator and exposed them four times a day to either recorded adult warning sounds or silence.The researchers report that the embryos exposed to the shrill warning calls would vibrate when the recordings were played—and they continued vibrating for some time even after they were returned to their incubator. They suspected that the vibrations could be felt by the nest mate that had not heard the recordings. To find out, they monitored the embryos after they hatched as chicks. They report that the birds exposed to the warning sounds took longer to hatch, and when they finally did so, they were quieter than the chicks that had been exposed to silence. The hatchlings also crouched lower when exposed to perceived threats. And they were smaller overall, and had shorter legs. Interestingly, the clutch mates of the chicks exposed to the recordings had all the same differences, though they were not exposed to the warning calls. The researchers suggest this indicates that they felt the vibrations of nearby embryos and responded as if they had heard the warning calls themselves. Explore further More information: Jose C. Noguera et al. Bird embryos perceive vibratory cues of predation risk from clutch mates, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0929-8 Citation: Bird embryos respond to adult warning calls inside their shells (2019, July 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-bird-embryos-adult-shells.htmlcenter_img Yellow-legged gull eggs. Inside, gull embryos hear, and respond to, warning calls from adult gulls. CC0 Public Domain. Fairy wren embryos found able to discern between adult calls Journal information: Nature Ecology & Evolution This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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